# Equilibrium Analysis for a Rigid Body

For an **rigid body** in static equilibrium, that is a non-deformable body where forces are not concurrent, the sum of both the **forces** and the **moments** acting on the body must be equal to zero. The addition of moments (as opposed to particles where we only looked at the forces) adds another set of possible equilibrium equations, allowing us to solve for more unknowns as compared to particle problems.

Moments, like forces, are vectors. This means that our vector equation needs to be broken down into scalar components before we can solve the equilibrium equations. In a two dimensional problem, the body can only have clockwise or counter clockwise rotation (corresponding to rotations about the z axis). This means that a rigid body in a two dimensional problem has three possible equilibrium equations; that is, the sum of force components in the x and y directions, and the moments about the z axis. The sum of each of these will be equal to zero.

For a two dimensional problem, we break our one vector force equation into two scalar component equations.

\[\sum \vec{F}=0\] | |

\[\sum F_x=0\] | \[\sum F_y=0\] |

The one moment vector equation becomes a single moment scalar equation.

\[\sum \vec{M}=0\] |

\[\sum M_z=0\] |

If we look at a three dimensional problem we will increase the number of possible equilibrium equations to six. There are three equilibrium equations for force, where the sum of the components in the x, y, and z direction must be equal to zero. The body may also have moments about each of the three axes. The second set of three equilibrium equations states that the sum of the moment components about the x, y, and z axes must also be equal to zero.

We break the forces into three component equations

\[\sum \vec{F}=0\] | ||

\[\sum F_x=0\] | \[\sum F_y=0\] | \[\sum F_z=0\] |

We break the moments into three component equations

\[\sum \vec{M}=0\] | ||

\[\sum M_x=0\] | \[\sum M_y=0\] | \[\sum M_z=0\] |

## Finding the Equilibrium Equations:

As with particles, the first step in finding the equilibrium equations is to draw a free body diagram of the body being analyzed. This diagram should show all the force vectors acting on the body. In the free body diagram, provide values for any of the known magnitudes, directions, and points of application for the force vectors and provide variable names for any unknowns (either magnitudes, directions, or distances).

Next you will need to choose the x, y, z axes. These axes do need to be perpendicular to one another, but they do not necessarily have to be horizontal or vertical. If you choose coordinate axes that line up with some of your force vectors you will simplify later analysis.

Once you have chosen axes, you need to break down all of the force vectors into components along the x, y and z directions (see the vectors page in Appendix 1 page for more details on this process). Your first equation will be the sum of the magnitudes of the components in the x direction being equal to zero, the second equation will be the sum of the magnitudes of the components in the y direction being equal to zero, and the third (if you have a 3D problem) will be the sum of the magnitudes in the z direction being equal to zero.

Next you will need to come up with the the moment equations. To do this you will need to choose a point to take the moments about. Any point should work, but it is usually advantageous to choose a point that will decrease the number of unknowns in the equation. Remember that any force vector that travels through a given point will exert no moment about that point. To write out the moment equations simply sum the moments exerted by each force (adding in pure moments shown in the diagram) about the given point and the given axis (x, y, or z) and set that sum equal to zero. All moments will be about the z axis for two dimensional problems, though moments can be about x, y and z axes for three dimensional problems.

Once you have your equilibrium equations, you can solve these formulas for unknowns. The number of unknowns that you will be able to solve for will again be the number of equations that you have.